I don't shoot Canon, I have a Nikon, but, I'll try to help you out.
I think for Canon, and Nikon both, stock lenses are pretty much all you need, otherwise your gonna be forking out a lot of money for no reason if your not a pro.
F stop, and shutter depend on what your going for in your shot. Depends on exposure time really. You can go manual, and keep the shutter open for like, 40 seconds or something, or, you can do a 2 second exposure. Depends on what you want your shot to look like.
Night shots also rely on your ISO setting. If your doing a night shot with a lot of lights around you, your gonna want a lower ISO, and sotra vice versa for very little lights around you and in the shot.
Hope this helps some what.